Creatine is an endogenous amino acid produced by vertebrates and occurring primarily in muscle cells as phosphocreatine. Creatine is neuroprotective in vitro enhancing survival of glutamate-treated neuronal/glial cells, modulating Ras/NF-kappaB signaling, and increases the generation of reactive oxygen species. Creatine protects against anoxia in rodent models of cerebral ischemia. Creatine has immunomodulatory activity in vitro.
- Creatine enhances survival of glutamate-treated neuronal/glial cells, modulates Ras/NF-kappaB signaling, and increases the generation of reactive oxygen species. Juravleva E. et al. J Neurosci Res. 2005, 79, 224.
- Intracerebroventricular administration of creatine protects against damage by global cerebral ischemia in rat. Lensman M. et al. Brain Res. 2006, 1114, 187.
- Neuroprotective mechanisms of creatine occur in the absence of mitochondrial creatine kinase. Kilvenyi P. et al. Neurobiol Dis. 2004, 15, 610.