Nivalenol is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by various Fusarium sp. infecting grains. Nivalenol inhibits protein synthesis in H-HeLa cells, causing rapid and almost quantitative breakdown of polyribosomes. Nivalenol induces apoptosis mediated by caspase-3 and is associated with a cell cycle blocking in G0/G1 phase. Nivalenol demonstrates time-dependent inhibition followed by stimulation of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-5 in concanavalin A-treated CD4+ T-cells.
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