Creatinine is an endogenous breakdown product of creatine used to measure kidney function. Creatinine has antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including resistant strains. Creatinine may impact the ability of immune cells to sense a wide array of viral and bacterial pathogens and may also have immunosuppressive properties similar to those of creatine.
- Creatinine inhibits bacterial replication. McDonal T. et al. J Antibiot. 2012, 65, 153.
- Effect of creatine, creatinine and creatine ethyl ester of TLR expression in macrophages. Leland K.M. et al. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011, 11, 1341.