Pulvinic acid is a pigment produced by large number of lichen species reported over 100 years ago. The structure of pulvinic acid was proved synthetically by Volhard in 1894. Pulvinic acid is the core nucleus of a broad number of pigments: calycin, epanorin, rhizopcarpic acid, pinastric acid pulvinamide, vulpinic acid and the reactive pulvinic acid lactone. Pulvinic acid and related pigments are considered to play an important role in protection of lichens from UV radiation and are reported to display broad biological activity against bacteria, fungi, plants and viruses.
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